Asset management is an intriguing field. We can imagine it as a mixture of:
- strategic thinking
This means working with technical elements and collecting asset data.
Models are key helpers when making decisions on the base of the information received. The decisions themselves must be related to the objectives of the stakeholders.
What do they want to do with an asset?
If the asset does not achieve the specified % of utilization, then it has failed expectations. In this case, an analysis of the activity of the asset is made to understand the reason for its failure and to find a solution to the problem.
The influence of the stakeholders is the reason why asset management models operate within ‘the stakeholder circle’.
In this chapter you will:
- find out what a model is
- look at the Conceptual Model of Asset Management
- learn more about the processes and principles that build it
- look through a bunch of examples
What is a model?
The model is a graphic representation of several ideas. Models have been developed for people’s convenience. Through them, we can more easily understand the ideas presented.
Asset Management Council (a membership-based, nonprofit organization) has created its’ own three models to explain:
- The ‘why‘ of asset management
- Asset Management’s ‘what‘
- The ‘how’ of Asset Management
These three Council models represent the three levels of asset management:
The Concept Model represents strategic decision making. The asset management system model represents tactical decision making. The capacity delivery model is operational decision making.
This episode is dedicated to the Asset Management Concept (AMC) Model. The rest will be discussed in detail later.
What is Asset Management Modeling?
It is a complete system for managing the life cycle of controlled assets. Asset management models use different criteria to maximize:
How do the models work?
The three AMC models are combined to form a comprehensive asset management framework. It serves as a benchmark for professionals and organizations.
Concept Model of asset management. Nature and Purpose
The Concept Model of asset management represents mainstream thinking in the industry.
It shows you how to handle the complexity of asset management by dividing it into related parts. The model serves as a framework through which the main parts of AM can be:
The stakeholders’ influence places the Concept Model in the ‘stakeholder circle’. It’s the regulator of all decisions and actions taken by the organization. Let’s understand how and why it has this effect.
The Circle is the first component of the Conceptual Model. Here the stakeholders are presented as encompassing and influencing all asset management activities. They may be influenced or affected by an organizational decision or activity.
They create the organization and determine the needs and constraints of the business. They play a major role in all asset management processes, plans, and decisions.
Do you know what that means?
ANSWER: Stakeholders take part in all models of the Asset Management Council. Moreover, they occupy the upper levels.
And who do we call a stakeholder?
It can be:
- local governments
- state governments
- private personas
In terms of asset management, stakeholders in the organization may be internal or external.
Stakeholders set requirements for guidance to meet organizational goals. These requirements usually include the expectations of:
- the shareholders
- the general public
Stakeholder expectations should be recorded and communicated. They can be reflected in a statement of stakeholder needs and must address all mandatory requirements as well as the expectations of different stakeholder groups.
The requirements may include:
- criteria for decision making
- safety and environmental issues
- profit and financial needs
- community expectations
- volume and quality of the product
The Four Principles of Asset Management
The second part of this episode deals with the principles of asset management. They are a synthesis of the goals that stakeholders set. Let’s list them:
- Output Focus
- Level of Assurance
- Learning Organization
The ISO sets out the fundamentals of Asset Management – Value, Alignment, Leadership, Assurance.
The principles and fundamentals go in pairs as follows:
- Output Focus – It aims to provide value
- Capabilities – They’re aligned with the stakeholders’ objectives and needs
- Level of Assurance – Assurance that the asset will achieve the desired outcome
- Learning Organization – Based and grown on leadership & culture
It’s time to dig deeper into the essence of the Concept Model – the fundamentals.
Every organization and its assets must be focused on achieving results. This is the first principle of the Concept Model
Here you answer the question: What is the asset for?
The focus falls on the provision of output. It must be consistent with the organization’s objectives. These business goals are usually set out in external agreements that the organization is committed to achieving.
Output can be defined in different ways. Methods of measuring results have to be coordinated so that it is clear if the production or service has been delivered.
The second principle is capabilities. Both organizations and assets have capabilities.
An asset has the ability you have assigned it.
The chair is made to serve for seating. However, stakeholders can use it instead of a ladder when replacing burned-out lightbulbs.
The essence of asset management lies not in the physical asset itself, but its capabilities.
Asset capabilities have three aspects. We looked at the first one in the previous paragraph. It is related to the capabilities of the assets. The second aspect is about the people and their competencies and skills. They are also defined as capabilities. Third are the devices, equipment, and processes owned by the organization.
Abilities are required to perform the desired actions. In this way, assets fulfill their primary task – to provide value.
Level of Assurance
The third basic principle is the Level of Assurance.
The question you have to answer is:
What is the likelihood that an asset (will) fail to meet what it requires under certain conditions while maintaining a balance between:
The level of assurance is associated with risk. The probability that when X happens, Y will follow.
Risk is a key concept in asset management, and according to some, the most important of all. In the context of asset management, it can come from many different fields. Some of the risks that affect the focus on an asset’s productivity are:
- The financial markets
- Unsuccessful projects subject to legal action
- Regulatory failures
- Natural disasters
- Human mistake
Conclusion: The risk is directly related to the value that the asset produces.
The fourth basic principle of asset management is the learning organization. It is the most influenced principle of the four by workplace culture and management style.
This is an evolution of a set of attitudes and aspirations that makes the asset evolve from a bunch of equipment and processes to property of the people.
Members of a learning organization are always looking for a way to:
- increase productivity
- improve the process
- provide a higher quality of the product they produce
The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) process
We know what the basic principles are and their characteristics. Our next task is to connect them through a process that fully embraces them.
The concept model of asset management shows four processes. They are part of a continuous improvement cycle – plan, do, check, act.
Each process is bound by one of the principles – Output Focus, Capabilities, Level Assurance, and Learning organization.
Let’s look at the four processes.
They are based on a training and improvement cycle developed by Dr. Walter Shewhart. He calls it Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA).
STEP #1: Plan the process
The first step of the cycle (Plan) identifies the need to change the process. Here you have to analyze the available data and find out which ones indicate that a change is needed. Information should be drawn from a wide range of sources (staff, customers, stakeholders, etc).
Example of data which may state a need for change:
The maturity of the asset? Lack of support? Poor operating instructions?
STEP #2: Do the planned actions
In step Do, the change is made. The way it is done is carefully tracked and recorded if it later turns out to be critical of the success or failure of the new process.
Here you need to be able to explain how you made the change.
STEP #3: Check if the stated intent of the plan is achieved
Step Check is to monitor the change. You need to track the progress and effectiveness of the change. You compare whether they fit the plan. We advise you to compare the data received after the change with the data from before the change.
You need answers to these questions:
- Has the stated intention been achieved in the plan?
- Did I do what was required of the plan?
- Are there any expected / unexpected consequences of the change?
- What has been achieved and learned?
- What recommendations can I give to management?
STEP #4: Act on any deviations found during the Check process
Well, you managed to plan the change so far. You were able to execute it. You even analyzed the whole process.
Time for a coffee break? Not exactly…
Go grab your coffee and let’s finish what we started
The last part of the PDCA process is the Act. Here’s a template that will make things easier:
After completing it, evaluate your answers and:
- Edit the master plan if necessary
- Make another change / Stick to the current one / Don’t change anything
- Organize all available data
- Repeat the PDCA cycle
The Shewhart system requires continuous improvement of one process until all variations in results are minimized. Organizations that manage assets well plan, check and act on deviations a lot.
On the other hand, organizations that fail in AM almost forget about the planning part. They spend a lot of money doing stuff and neglect to Check and Act.
Let’s review what we have learned
Imagine you own a company which is famous for its’ product X. You have to distribute the product to a store in the nearby city (output focus). You buy a vehicle (the asset) which you will drive (capability) and accomplish the task (the value).
You estimate that it will take 40 minutes to reach the store (plan). However, it takes you 1 hour and you are 20 minutes late (do).
The next time you distribute the product you will take time to evaluate the previous experience (check). Then you’ll act to remove the obstacles encountered (act).
When we unite the stakeholder community together with the four principles through the PDCA process, we get the Concept Model of Asset Management.
Let’s summarize how the model mechanism works:
- The Output Focus translates the organization’s goals into technical and financial decisions, plans and actions.
- Capabilities are required to perform the desired actions. Through them, assets fulfill their primary task – to provide value.
- Asset management provides a level of assurance that assets will complete their assigned tasks
- The learning organization helps by improving and refining the work process. It is always looking for and finding more effective ways to work.
The mechanism works thanks to the Plan-Do-Check-Act process.
Within the principles of asset management, the concept model is the process of reviewing and improving the plan.
The next step to mastering Asset Management is the System Model. But we will embark on this adventure next week. See you soon!